Medical nanoparticles, conceptual computer illustration. Medical nanoparticles could be used to deliver genes and other cellular materials to human cells to treat a variety of diseases.
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- Retroviral intasome molecule. Molecular model of an intasome from a retrovirus complexed with host cell DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Intasomes are nucleoprotein complexes of the enzyme integrase and viral DNA. Integrase is used to integrate the viral DNA into the host cell's chromosome.
- HIV DNA and transcription factor. Molecular model of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) from HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) complexed with the transcription factor kappa B. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific sequences of DNA and control the transcription (transfer) of genetic information from DNA to RNA (ribonucleic acid).
- Adenovirus protein and tumour suppressor. Molecular model of the E1A protein from human adenovirus bound to a retinoblastoma tumour suppressor. Tumour suppressors are proteins produced by the cell to encourage normal cell cycles, thus preventing the formation of tumours. When E1A binds, the tumour suppressor's action is blocked, and the development of malignant tumours becomes more likely.
- RNA stem-loop motif. Molecular model of the stem-loop II motif from the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) coronavirus. This RNA (ribonucleic acid) element is a target for antiviral drugs.
- Simian virus (SV40) large T antigen, molecular model. This antigen is from the simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). Large T antigens play a role in regulating the viral life cycle of the polyomaviridae viruses, such as SV40. SV40 is found in monkeys such as Rhesus monkeys and macaques. Potentially tumour-causing in primates and humans, it is used in laboratory research and in vaccines.
- DNA helicase. Molecular model of a helicase molecule from the SV40 virus. Helicases are enzymes that separate the two strands of the DNA double helix, by breaking the hydrogen bonds between nucleotide bases. Separation of the strands is needed for replication, and therefore this protein is vital for the ability of the virus to infect host cells.
- EcoRV restriction enzyme. Molecular model of the type II restriction enzyme EcoRV (pink and yellow) bound to a cleaved section of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, red and blue). Restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, recognise specific nucleotide sequences and cut the DNA at these sites. They are found in bacteria and archaea and are though to have evolved as a defence against vi
- RNA interference viral suppressor and RNA. Molecular model of the p19 protein (yellow) from a Tombusvirus, suppressing a double-stranded, small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecule (red and blue). RNA interference, or RNA silencing, has developed in plants as a defence against viruses. However, some viruses have developed proteins such as p19, that inhibit the process and allow them to infect the host
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- Rous sarcoma virus capsid protein. Molecular model of the N-terminal domain of the Rous sarcoma virus capsid protein.
- E. coli Holliday junction complex. Molecular model of a RuvA protein (red) in complex with a Holliday junction between homologous strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, blue) from an E. coli (Escherichia coli) bacterium. A Holliday junction forms during crossing over, a natural genetic process that occurs between homologous chromosomes and leads to the switching of genetic material between the chr
- Conceptual image for interaction between viruses and host-cell DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Integration of viruses into DNA is the key step in oncogenesis. Several viruses, such as hepatitis B virus, papillomavirus and other, can integrate into host DNA as insertional mutagens causing the activation of a cellular proto-oncogene which eventually leads to uncontrolled cell multiplication and cancer
- Hepatitis B viruses and DNA. Conceptual image for viral oncogenesis. Hepatitis B viruses (HBV) can integrate into host DNA as insertional mutagens causing the activation of a cellular proto-oncogene. Integration of viral DNA into the human genome is considered an early event in the carcinogenic process and can induce, through insertional mutagenesis, the alteration of gene expression and chromosom
- Destruction of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), computer illustration. Conceptual image for Kaposi's sarcoma treatment and prevention. KSHV, or human herpesvirus 8, is an oncovirus, a virus that can cause cancer. Its name is derived from being the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). The capsid surrounds the viral DNA (deoxyribonuclei
- Destruction of hepatitis B virus by silver nanoparticles, computer illustration. Conceptual image for hepatitis B treatment and prevention by using nanotechnology.
- Illustration of HIV particles in human blood.
- Illustration of human cells.